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Glass in this period was formed around a core or cast and cut; glassblowing was a later Syrian invention. We have a series of texts with recipes for glassmaking from Nimrud. The ancients often saw glass and similar substances as imitations of precious stones like lapis-lazuli and rock crystal. Unfortunately, glass is a fragile material, and decays in wet contexts.

  • A. Leo Oppenheim, Robert H. Brill, Dan Barag, and Axel von Saldern, Glass and Glassmaking in Ancient Mesopotamia: An Edition of the Cuneiform Texts Which Contain Instructions for Glassmakers: With a Catalogue of Surviving Objects. Corning, NY: Corning Museum of Glass, 1970 (reprinted 1988).
  • Despina Ignatiadou, “Achaemenid and Greek Colourless Glass.” In J. Curtis and J. Simpson (eds.), The World of Achaemenid Persia, pp. 419–26. London: British Museum, 2010
  • Despina Ignatiadou, Διαφανής ύαλος για την αριστοκρατία της αρχαίας Μακεδονίας. Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού και Αθλητισμού. Αρχαιολογικό Ινστιτούτο Μακεδονικών και Θρακικών Σπουδών Δημοσιεύματα, 13. Thessaloniki: Αρχαιολογικό Ινστιτούτο Μακεδονικών και Θρακικών Σπουδών, 2013
  • Katharina Schmidt, Glass and Glass Production in the Near East during the Iron Age Period: Evidence from Objects, Texts and Chemical Analysis. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2019
  • And an honourable mention to Ancient Glass: Blog of The Allaire Collection {most of their collection is later but it still gives an overall feel for ancient glass}

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