We remember Herodotus’ description of the Laconians exercising and combing their hair before battle (7.208), but not his description of Peisistratus charging the Athenians while they were napping or dicing and routing them (Hdt. 1.63). Assyrian soldiers scratched a game board into the floor of the palace gate.
- Cities: Max Nelson, “Battling on Boards: The Ancient Greek War Games of Ship-Battle (Naumachia) and City-State (Polis).” Mouseion, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp. 3-42
- polis and naumachia:
- The Game of 20 Squares – the royal game of Ur https://gameofuronline.com/ – https://royalur.net/ Finkel, Irving L. (2007) “On the rules for the Royal Game of Ur.” In Ancient Board Games in Perspective: Papers from the 1990 British Museum Colloquium, with Additional Contributions. London: British Museum, 2007, pp. 16-32.
- unknown game with a 7 by 10 grid from late Ur …
- six-sided die (κύβος): Takht at Persepolis, U. 18850
- knucklebones (astragals) in bone or other materials: van Ess and Pedde, Uruk: Kleinfunde II, pp. 187, 188; Woolley, UE 9 p. 78 grave P-160 (9 knucklebones)