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Miscellaneous objects found on the body of Chehrābād saltman 1: a ferrous knife and an earspoon in a single scabbard, a second knife, and a walnut for a snack.

Xenophon, Cyropaedia 6.2.25-40 lists the things which an army should bring with it from the point of view of the general. These include rasps and files for spearshafts, the tools of cartwrights, smiths, carpenters, and shoemakers, a shovel (ἄμη) and a mattock (σμινύη) for each wagon and an axe (ἀξίνη) and a sickle (δρέπανον) for each pack animal.

Sickles were essential for gathering fodder, harvesting the enemy’s grain, and possibly gathering reeds to make siege shields or corduroy roads or sleeping mats or baskets. The owners of event locations rarely approve of any of these activities.

… The saw (Greek ὁ πρίων) had existed since at least 3000 BCE, but was not as common as today. Saws were often used to cut stone or horn while wood was worked with wedges, mallets, adzes, draw-knives (Greek ἡ ξυήλη: Xen. Cyrop. 6.2.32), and chisels. Iron saws survive from Persepolis and Neo-Assyrian sites (the saws from Ur are mostly flint or copper).

  • Knives: Curtis, Late Assyrian Metalwork, pp. 34-35, 154-155; van Ess and Pedde plates 64, 65, Chehrābād (with sheaths!), Persepolis II plate 81 (pdf page 311), Ugarit (with leather sheath!) in the Louvre https://collections.louvre.fr/en/ark:/53355/cl010142179, British Museum 108685 (from Deve Hüyük), Nippur II plate 60 (one with traces of scabbard and wooden handle, burials 4B 109 and 4B 120 pp. 65, 66) …
  • For Greek knives see Η μάχαιρα στην αρχαία ελληνική λατρεία: τα ευρήματα από το ιερό του Διός Παρνησσίου (Knives in ancient greek cult: the finds from the sanctuary of Zeus Parnessios) http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/47252 thanks Giannis K.
  • Axes: Greek ἀξίνη or πέλεκυς, Xen. An. 1.5.12, implied at Xen. An. 4.4.12
  • adzes: Persepolis II plate 80 no. 5 …
  • scissors or shears? …
  • Ur Project Tools and Equipment > Awls, Piercers, Needles
  • whetstones (1 from Kalapodi, some from Ur like U. 17424 and Ur Project Term 28 where they often have a suspension hole …), 20 in Nippur I p. 110 and pl. 156 no. 8, 9, British Museum …, Chaeronea battlefield (Karunanithy, Macedonian War Machine, p. 177)

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