Fashion in the Age of Datini
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Fashion in the Age of Datini

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Short Pleated Cloaks

Short pleated cloak worn by a soldier in the "Pharsalia" painted by Niccolò da Bologia in 1373 (Bib. Trivulziana MS 691 folio 86r).  Image courtesy of the Web Gallery of Art
Short pleated cloak worn by a soldier in the “Pharsalia” painted by Niccolò da Bologia in 1373 (Bib. Trivulziana MS 691 folio 86r). Image courtesy of the Web Gallery of Art
Short pleated cloak worn by a soldier in the Crucifixion by Altichiero, Basilica di Sant'Antonio, Padua (c. 1376-1379).  Ask me offline for my source.
Short pleated cloak worn by a soldier in the Crucifixion by Altichiero, Basilica di Sant’Antonio, Padua (c. 1376-1379). Ask me offline for my source.
Detail from a fresco by Altichiero in Padua in the 1370s or 1380s
Detail from a fresco by Altichiero in Padua in the 1370s or 1380s
Morgan MS. G.54 Der Wälsche Gast folio 6r (painted in Trier circa 1380) from see also
Morgan MS. G.54 Der Wälsche Gast folio 6r (painted in Trier circa 1380) from see also The openwork decoration on the uppers seems to be typically German.
Detail of Mellini, "Altichiero e Jacopo Avanzi" (1965) plate 93, Decollazione di S. Giacomo e Josia, Padova, Basilica del Santo, cappella di S. Giacomo
Detail of Mellini, “Altichiero e Jacopo Avanzi” (1965) plate 93, Decollazione di S. Giacomo e Josia, Padova, Basilica del Santo, cappella di S. Giacomo
BNF Latin 757 folio 355r (painted in Milan, circa 1385-1390, school of Giovanni di Benedetto da Como)
BNF Latin 757 folio 355r (painted in Milan, circa 1385-1390, school of Giovanni di Benedetto da Como)
A man dressed in gray with a pointed beard approaches a group of enthroned bishops
A short pleated cloak in the Way of Salvation painted by Andrea da Firenze (fl. 1343-1377)

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Hoods were a popular style of male headdress although not as dominant as in colder lands with less exposure to fashions from outside the area dominated by French culture. Several of the pictures under Short Pleated Cloaks show examples.

The hood with a long liripipe worn by a groom in BNF Français 343 folio 1r (painted in Milan in the 1380s). Cropped from a photo at or
A short pleated cloak and liripipe hood in the illustration for hops in a Taciunum Sanitatis (BNF NAL 1673 folio 29v).

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Most shoes seem to have gently pointed tips, without a long ‘pike’ in the ‘poulaine’ or ‘cracow’ style. Soled hosen seem very popular, at least among rich men. The method and place of fastening is not usually visible. The ankle opening seems to be at a similar place to modern men’s dress shoes, making them ‘shoes’ or low ‘ankle boots’ in the language of the Museum of London. Openwork decoration on the uppers seems to have been fashionable for men, especially north of the Alps.

Black is a very popular colour in art. I don’t know of any documentary evidence for the colour of shoes in Italy. It is possible that shoes were not commonly made in bulk and shipped long distances, so do not appear in merchants’ records. In 1480 Edward IV of England ordered shoes and boots of “black leather” and “tawney Spanish leather” (Shoes and Pattens p. 120) and an English Arthurian romance composed around 1410 mentions “A man… As blak As Ony Scho.” The Treatise of the Points of Worship in Arms mentions “A payre of shoen of red Lether thynne laced & fretted underneth wt whippecorde & persed, And above withinne Lyned wt Lynnen cloth three fyngers in brede double & byesse from the too an yncle above ye wriste.”

Pattens (wooden overshoes) appear on shelves next to beds in the Tacuinum Sanitatis in Paris but I do not know of other evidence for clogs and pattens in Italy. Olaf Goubitz gives the impression that few finds of shoes from Italy have been published, and says that clogs and pattens are rare archaeologically (p. 131), whether because they were less common, or because old clogs made good firewood. One researcher claims that a 14th century Italian name for these objects is pianelle (Meek, “Sumptuary Legislation in Lucca,” p. 212).

Further Reading:

  • Francis Grew and Margarethe de Neergaard, Shoes and Pattens. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London 2. New edition. Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2001. ISBN-13 978-1-84383-238-6
  • Olaf Goubitz, Stepping Through Time: Archaeological Footwear from Prehistoric Times until 1800 (Stitchtig Promotie Archeologie: n.p., 2001) ISBN-13 978-90-8932-004-9
  • Quita Mould, Ian Carlisle, and Esther Cameron, Leather and Leatherworking in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17 The Small Finds, Fasc. 16 Craft, Industry, and Everyday Life. York Archaeological Trust: Walmgate, York, 2003.
  • Quita Mould, “The Medieval Leather,” in C. Howard-Davis, The Carlisle Millennium Project: Excavations in Carlisle, 1998-2001, Volume 2: The Finds. (Oxford Archaeology North: Lancaster, 2009) pp. 841-858. ISBN 9780904220575.
  • Marquita Volken, Archaeological Footwear: Development of Shoe Patterns and Styles from Prehistory til the 1600’s (SPA Uitgevers, 2014) ISBN-13 978-9089321176
  • Marquita Volken, “Arming Shoes of the Fifteenth Century,” Acta Periodica Duellatorum 5.2 (December 2017) pp. 25-45
Examples of shoed feet on the Pistoia Altarpiece. Photo courtesy of Hugh McDonald
Shoes worn by soldiers in a manuscript painted by Niccolò da Bologna in 1373 (Bib. Trivulziana, MS Triv. 691 folio 119r). Courtesy of manus online

Detail of shoes worn by soldiers in a manuscript painted by Niccolò da Bologna in 1373 (Bib. Trivulziana, MS Triv. 691 folio 119r). These have openwork decoration which may have been fashionable north of the Alps at this time (eg. Photo courtesy of Web Gallery of Art
Shoes of a male donor in a late 14th century fresco in S. Giorgetto, Verona. Photo by Sean Manning, April 2017.
Shoes worn under greaves in BNF Latin 757 folio 76r. Photo courtesy of

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Bar mounts, D-shaped buckles, and various round mounts are all common archaeological finds. See figure 12 of Willemsen, ‘Man is a sack of muck girded with silver’ for a belt like the old soldier’s.
The belt of Lorenzo Acciaiuoli with a pentagonal buckle and heavy strap end.
The belt of Guiron le Courtoise in BNF Nouvelle acquisition française 5243
Another belt with bar mounts in Ms. Triv. 691 fol. 119r (Lucan de Bello Civile). You can find similar belts in the Chroniques de France in the British Library (BL Royal 20 C VII).

Belts fall into two general categories, a kind with a long dangling tail which was usually wrapped around the belt and tucked behind itself, and a kind with no visible tail worn around the hips. They could be of tanned leather, woven silk, or interlinked metal plaques, and decorated in many different ways.

To learn about belts and their metal fittings (mounts), see Egan and Prirchard, Dress Accessories, Willemsen ‘Man is a Sack of Muck Girdled with Silver’, Schnack, Lederfunde aus Schleswig, and databases of metal-detector finds like the Portable Antiquities Scheme. Leather belts and pewter or copper-alloy mounts survive well.

The heavy belts of silver or gilt plaques often show up in inventories, merchants’ records, and rhetoric about excess: there is some information in Stuard, Gilding the Market.

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The purse of a poor infantryman (armed only with a round shield and long baselard) in a painting by Altichiero in Padua in the 1370s. It probably has two loops enclosing the belt and a cover tied by two pairs of laces. Ask me offline for my source.
An example of a cloth purse with a circular frame. L. Paul Getty Museum, MS. Ludwig XV 13 (Fior di Battaglia, painted circa 1410), folio 6r, courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.
A very rare ballock pouch in Italian art of this period (and an unusually wide, deep pouch in general). I suspect that he is supposed to be dressed alla tedesca. L. Paul Getty Museum, MS. Ludwig XV 13 (Fior di Battaglia, painted circa 1410), folio 6r, courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

… more pictures to follow …

People in the trecento hung a variety of cloth or leather bags from their belt to carry small objects, or used them to project objects in storage. Painters usually show no more than one, while a variety of pouches and bags, often rather plain, are found by archaeologists.

Leatherworkers usually rely on Goubitz, “Purses in Pieces” to reconstruct late medieval leather purses. The problem is that this book relies in 15th and 16th century Dutch finds, and purses in trecento Italian art look very different from purses in 15th and 16th century Dutch art. The Dutch enjoyed the bawdy humour of a purse with two large lumps worn over the crotch (and often supporting a long, hard, stiff dagger with a phallic hilt) but Italians usually cut their purses and carved their hilts differently and usually wore both at the hip. I would therefore recommend caution in using this as a source to understand purses in Italy.

Goubitz also warns that many purses probably combined textiles, tanned leathers, and hides treated in other ways, but that only the tanned leather part has much chance of surviving in the ground.

Karen Larsdatter has a page on Medieval and Renaissance Pouches and Purses, but again its important to remember that fashions were quite different in different parts of Europe. There are some rectangular and round drawstring pouches in Schnack, “Lederfunde aus Schleswig.”

Leather purses often had a variety of pewter, brass, silver, gold, or gilt fittings. Photos of a wide variety are available in Willemsen, Decorative Mounts on Belts and Purses. These fittings are commonly found by metal detectors, so many private collections contain some.

… more to come … other styles of bag and purse …

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  • Simone Abraham-Thisse, “Les Aunes des drapiers au Moyen Age,” in J.-Cl. Hoquet (éd.), «Une activité universelle: peser et mesurer à travers les âges» Cahiers de Métrologie, Tomes 11-12 (1993-1994) pp. 385-399 {the best list of evidence for the length of various medieval ells which I have read (based mostly on handbooks for merchants from the 16th-18th centuries)}
  • >Doris Aichholzer, Wildu machen ayn guet essen…Drei mittelhochdeutsche Kochbücher: Erstedition, Übersetzung, Kommentar (Peter Lang Verlag: 1999) #recipe #cooking
  • Marko Aleksić, Mediaeval Swords from Southeastern Europe: Material from 12th to 15th Century (Belgrade: Duraplast, 2007)
  • Josef Alm, European Crossbows: A Survey. Royal Armouries Monograph 3 (1994) {I have not seen this}
  • Thomas Amyot, “Transcript of Two Rolls, Containing an Inventory of Effects formerly Belonging to Sir John Fastolfe.” Archaeologia XXI (1826) pp. 1-50 {this inventory from, probably, 1459 is in English and records everything someone very rich owned}
  • Anonymous, Le Ménagier de Paris (Paris, 1393). This unfinished treatise for women on household management (what Xenophon called oikonomia) addresses clothing and its repair and maintenance as well as #cooking, medicine, gardening, food preservation, and sex. The editio princeps was Jérôme Pichon (ed.), Traité de morale et d’économie domestique composé vers 1393 par un bourgeois parisien. 2 volumes. Paris: Imprimerie Crapelet, 1846-1847 and is available on gallica and the Internet Archive. There are translations in Eileen Power, The Goodman of Paris (1928; selective, excerpts on the Internet Medieval Sourcebook) and Gina L. Greco and Christine M. Rose, The Good Wife’s Guide: Le Ménagies de Paris, A Medieval Household Book (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009)
  • Anonymous, The Times of Edward the Black Prince: Replicas of his Achievements: Knights of the Gartet, Past and Present. Canterbury Papers No. 8 (The Friends of Canterbury Cathedral: Canterbury, 1954) {more information on the achievements of Edward of Woodstock and the construction of replicas to hang over his tomb}
  • Tina Anderlini, “The Shirt Attributed to St. Louis,” in Robin Netherton and Gale Owen-Crocker (eds.), Medieval Dress and Textiles 11 (2015) pp. 49-78 {there is a lot of information about this garment floating around online in English, including including an article by Heather Rose Jones, but this is the first study based on taking the shirt out of its case, and it turns out that modern stitches and hangers made it hard to understand the construction of this garment without laying it flat and handling it}
  • Janet Arnold, “The Jupon or Coat-Armour of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral,” Journal of the Church Monuments Society VIII (1993) pp. 12-22
  • Ruth Matilda Anderson, Hispanic Costume 1480-1530. Hispanic Society of America, New York, 1979. Isbn 87535-126-3. {very important paraphrases of early 16th century tailors and hosiers’ rules from Seville and Grenada … as far as I know, these sources have never been fully published (!)}
  • Louis Douet d’Arcq ed., Comptes de l’argenterie des rois de France au XIVe Siecle. Jules Renouard: Paris, 1851. and Nouveau recueil de comptes de l’argenterie des rois de France Jules Renouard: Paris, 1874. {some information on clothing is buried among other information eg. vol. 1 pp. 142-144, vol. 2 pages 150, 151, 152 (the famous purchase of three ells of linen of Rheims to make a pattern (patron, DMF s.v. patron 2) of a little pourpoint for someone to send to Germany and make a plates for that person}
  • Katherine Barich and Marion McNealy, Drei Schnittbücher: Three Austrian Master Tailor Books of the 16th Century (Nadel und Faden Press, 2015) {cutting plans and suggested materials for a variety of garments from late in the 16th century, with a detailed commentary … some important 14th century cuts are missing, but it shows a way of thinking about how to use fabric and some cuts which are good fits for garments in art. There are not as many measurements on the diagrams as in Spanish examples, but you can often use the width of the cloth as a yardstick. Facsimiles of the printed books by Diego de Freyle, Juan de Alcega, and Francisco de la Rocha de Burguen are much harder to obtain but digital editions are sometimes available}
  • W. Paley Baildon, “XXII.—A Wardrobe Account of 16–17 Richard II, 1393–4,” Archaeologia, Vol. 62 No. 2 (1911) pp. 497-514 {many lists of materials used to make specific garments for an English lord– probably Roger Mortimer the 4th Earl of March, say the latest books}
  • Claude Blair, “The Word ‘Baselard,'” Journal of the Arms and Armour Society XI.4 (1984), pp. 193-206, pl. XLVI, XLVII
  • Melanie Schuessler Bond, Dressing the Scottish Court, 1543-1553: Clothing in The Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland (Boydell Press, 2019) ISBN 9781783272624 hardcover {very worthwhile on its specific place and time, the section on military garments is very thin. If your focus is the age of Datini, The King’s Servants amd The Queen’s Servants are much better value for money}
  • Elisa Tosi Brandi, Abbigliamento e Società a Rimini nel XV Secolo (Panozzo Editore: Rimini, 2000) {summary of 99 inventories from Rimini dating between 1400 and 1468, with comments on the social context, sumptuary laws, etc. One of these is a wool draper’s shop (with full transcription!), two belong to men-at-arms. Her Italian is not complicated.}
  • Dorothy K. Burnham, Cut my Cote (1973) {the standard introduction to clothing assembled from rectangles and triangles, allowing almost all of the fabric to be used … in Datini’s world most clothing was probably assembled in other ways, but triangle-and-rectangle construction was still widespread in rural Europe at the beginning of the 20th century}
  • Cennino Cennini, Il Libro dell’ Arte. This treatise on painting, written before 1437 (possibly in the 1390s?), contains valuable material on block printing, painting textiles, materials used for different trades, and a way of approaching problems. Gaetano and Carlo Milanesi’s Italian text from 1867 is available on the Hathi Trust; the D.V. Thompson translation is available in an affordable reprint from Dover or free as HTML; the latest edition and translation is Lara Broecke, Cennino Cennini’s Il Libro dell’Arte: A new English translation and commentary with Italian transcription (Archetype Publications, 2015) ISBN-13 978-1909492288.
  • Camille Couderc, Les comptes d’un grand couturier parisien du XVe siècle (Paris: n.p., 1911) {Begins in the 1420s and not tremendously exciting (more summaries than complete lists of materials for specific garments)}
  • J. Cowgill, M. de Neergaard, and P. Wilthew, Knives and Scabbards. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 1. Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2000. {The basic reference on knives, sheaths, shears, and scissors from the 12th to the 15th century, with many measurements and B&W drawings}
  • Ann Crabb, The Merchant of Prato’s Wife (University of Michigan Press, 2015) ISBN 978-0-472-11949-3 {basically a book of social history, and tends to summarize rather than quote sources, but many details about how clothing fit into everyday life}
  • Elizabeth Crowfoot, “The Clothing of a Fourteenth-Century Nubian Bishop.” In Veronika Gervers eds., Studies in Textile History in Memory of Harold B. Burnham (Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1977) pp. 43-51 OCLC 4035631 {Grave of Bishop Timotheos of Ibrîm in Nubia who took office, according to the scroll deposited in the tomb, in 1372. Where in wet sites from Europe the wool survives and the linen is lost, here the linen and cotton survived and the wool was devoured by insects! The grave goods include a tunic, hooded oval cloak, trousers, and woven belt}
  • Dean, Bashford (1929) Catalogue of European Daggers Including the Ellis, De Dino, Riggs and Reubell Collections (The Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York)
  • Chrétien Dehaisnes, Documents et extraits diverses concernant l’histoire de l’Art (Lille: L. Daniel, 1886) volume 1 {mostly on books, armour, goldsmith’s work, and other durable goods but there are some banners and other tailor’s work}
  • Carol van Driel-Murray “Fourteenth-century sword sheaths from Leiden city centre.” In Quita Mould (ed.) Leather in Warfare: Attack, Defence and the Unexpected. (Leeds: Royal Armouries Museum, 2017) pp. 34-47 {the leathers of sword sheaths, probably mostly from the early 14th century}
  • Geoff Egan and Frances Pritchard, Dress Accessories, 1150-1450. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London. London: HMSO, 1991. {Covers buckles and other metal mounts for leather, broaches, rings, buttons, needlecases, combs, girdles and straps, pouches, and mirrors in cases}
  • Joan Evans, Dress in Mediaeval France. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952. {one of the last works in the antiquarian tradition, this book is a good guide to medieval texts to track down and read in the original language … be careful of her paraphrases of the sources, and remember that she was writing when few surviving garments and textile fragments had been published}
  • Guilhelm Ferrand with help from Jean-Pierre Garcia, Les inventaires après décès de la ville de Dijon à la fin du Moyen Âge (1390-1459). Tome I : 1390-1408 (Méridiennes Presses Universitaires du Midi: Tolouse, 2018) ISBN-13 978-2-8107-0544-3 {for 25 Euros you get 660 pages of nice detailed technical sources, what are you waiting for? You can buy it direct from the publisher or find it on Bookfinder}
  • Ilse Fingerlin, Gürtel des hohen und späten Mittelalters. Kunstwissenschaftliche Studien, Bd. 46. München: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1971. {Robert Macpherson tentatively recommends it as a typology of belt furniture}
  • Fingerlin, Ilse (1997) “Seltene Textilien aus Kloster Alpirsbach im Nordschwarzwald.” Waffen- und Kostümkunde; Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Historische Waffen- und Kostümkunde, Band 39, Heft 1 & 2, pp. 99-122 {the publication of a pair of linen joined hosen dating roughlt 1490-1535 n.b they are so long that don’t have eyelets to attach them to a doublet!}
  • Jessica Finley, “The Lübeck Wappenröcke: Distinctive Style in Fifteenth-Century German Fabric Armor.” In Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker (eds.), Medieval Clothing and Textiles 13 (Boydell and Brewer, 2017) pp. 121-152
  • Édouard Forestié, Les Livres de comptes des frères Bonis, marchands montalbanais du XIVe siècle. Archives Historiques de la Gascogne, Fasc. XX, XXIII, XXVI. Honore Champion and Cocharaux Frères: Paris and Auch, 1890 and 1893 and 1894. {The accounts of this family of drapers list the cloth sold to make specific garments for specific people in specific years; the editor collected references to specific garments, suggested French equivalents of Occitan words, and researched weights, measures, etc.}.
  • Lilli Fransen, Anna Nørgaard and Else Østergård, Medieval Garments Reconstructed: Norse Clothing Patterns (Aarhus University Press: Aarhus, 2011) {on Norse Greenland, to be read with Woven into the Earth}
  • François-Alexandre-Pierre de Garsault, Art du Tailleur (1769) English translation of the section on men’s shirts {more detailed than the Austrian and Spanish books from the 16th century, since the author was a scholar trying to explain the art to a wide audience}
  • François-Alexandre-Pierre de Garsault, L’Art de la Lingere (1771) {instructions for men’s (p. 44, pl. III) and women’s shirts and other linens, and he defines all the different stitches with diagrams}
  • Victor Gay, Glossaire Archéologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance. Paris: Libraire de la Société Archéologique, 1887 and 1928. Tome 1 A-G and Tome 2 H-Z have been scanned. {A collection of excerpts from written sources, mostly from France and all in the original language. Useful entries include Armurier, Bourras, Bourreau (related to bourre ‘stuffing’), Chape, Chapron, Chausses, Doublet A. Vetir, Gipe, Gipon (jupon), Gonne, Gambeson, Harnais, Hoqueton (ie. aketon) … Pourpoint
  • A. Geibig, Beiträge zur morphologischen Entwicklung des Schwertes im Mittelalter. Eine Analyse des Fundmaterials von ausgehenden 8. bis 12. Jahrhundert aus Sammlungen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Offa-Bücher 71. Neumünster, 1991. {non vidi; pp. 104 ff. discuss scabbards from this early period}
  • Veronika Gervers, “Medieval Garments in the Mediterranean World.” In N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (eds.), Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe. Pasold Studies in Textile History 2 (London: Heinemann, 1983) pp. 298-315 {very important diagrams of surviving garments, although their current location and museum number are not always clear}
  • Matthew Gnagy, The Modern Maker Vol. 1: Men’s 17th Century Doublets (self-published, 2014) ISBN-13 978-0692264843 {for the purposes of this project, use it for the lessons in how to draft a pattern using two or three measurements, and the advice on efficiently making clothing by hand … most of the techniques taught and materials chosen are more applicable to 16th century and later fashions, but Gnagy is a trained suitmaker in a field where most makers are self-taught. See also his revised pattern, which he calls errata sheets (warning: Facebook!)}
  • Eunice Rathbone Goddard, Women’s Costume in French Texts of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. The Johns Hopkins Studies in Romance Literatures and Languages Volume VII (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1927)
  • Gorman, Stuart (2016) “The Technological Development of the Bow and the Crossbow in the Later Middle Ages.” Ph.D. Thesis, Trinity College Dublin.
  • Olaf Goubitz, Purses in Pieces: Archaeological Finds of Late Medieval and 16th Century Leather Purses, Pouches, Bags and Cases in the Netherlands. 2nd Edition. SPA Uitgevers: 2009. ISBN-13 978-9089320148 {Covers purses, pouches, wallets, bags, and leather cases with a removable lid sliding on cords (etuis) from the Netherlands, with some references to objects as early as the Roman period and as late as the 20th century}
  • Gräf, Julia (2017) “Fighting in women’s clothes: The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33.” Acta Periodica Duellatorum, Vol. 5 No. 2 pp. 47-71
  • Janne Harjula, Sheaths, Scabbards and Grip Coverings: Use of Leather for Portable Personal Objects in 14th-16th Century Turku (SKAS, 2006) ISBN-13 978-9519680149
  • Adrien Harmand, Jeanne d’Arc, son costume, son armure: essai de reconstitution (Paris: Editions Leroux: Paris, 1929) {many, many modern patterns derive from this obscure book, which also contains the most detailed publication of the cloth-of-gold pourpoint of Charles du Blois}
  • Egon Harmuth, Die Armbrust: Ein Handbuch (Akadem. Druck.- und Verlagsanst.: Graz, 1975) ISBN-13 3201009334 9783201009331
  • Albert Hartshorne, “The Sword Belts of the Middle Ages,” The Archaeological Journal 48 (1891) pp. 320-34 {thanks Harry Maniakis}
  • Maria Hayward (ed.), The Great Wardrobe Accounts of Henry VII and Henry VIII (London Record Society, 2012) ISBN-13 9780900952524 {covers the years 1498/1499 and 1510/1511, as well as the section of the 1544 account relating to Henry VIII’s campaign in France}
  • John G. Hawthorne and Cyril Stanley Smith (tr.), Theophilius on Divers Arts: The Foremost Medieval Treatise on Painting, Glassmaking and Metalwork. Dover Publications Inc: New York, 1979 {a convenient English translation of Theophilius Presbyter de diversis artibus libri III}
  • Constance B. Hieatt, Brenda Hosington, and Sharon Butler, Pleyn Delit: Medieval Cookery for Modern Cooks. Second Edition. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, 1996. #cooking
  • Ada Bruhn Hoffmeyer, Middelalderens Tvaeggede Svaerd (PhD Dissertation, Copenhagen, 1954) {the pioneering typology of the medieval #sword, unfortunately it was never printed or translated into a world language}
  • Gerhard Folke Wulf Holtmann, Untersuchung zu mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Messern. Dissertationsschrift, Fachbereich Historisch-Philologische Wissenschaften, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (1994) {a study of 1300 knives from the Germanic world with line drawings}
  • Christine Howard-Davis (ed.) The Carlisle Millennium Project: Excavations in Carlisle, 1998-2001, Volume 2: The Finds. Oxford Archaeology North: Lancaster, 2009. ISBN 9780904220575
  • Wolfgang Jahn, Jutta Schumann, Evamaria Brockhoff (eds.), Edel und Frei. Franken im Mittelalter. Veröffentlichungen zur Bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur 47/04 (Augsburg 2004) ISBN 3-927233-91-9
  • Sophie Jolivet, Pour soi vêtir honnêtement à la cour de monseigneur le duc de Bourgogne, Costume et dispositif vestimentaire à la cour de Philippe le Bon de 1430 à 1455. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Université de Bourgogne, 2003. {I have not read this in full (the focus is too late), but check out the et un garde-corps de cuir de cerf pour vêtir sur son pourpoint à armer on page 242 and similarly on page 271}
  • Elizabeth Jones, “Farsetto Construction of the Italian Renaissance (1425-1470)” (2002) {useful Italian and English bibliography on doublets with summary for English speakers, strongest on documents and art and on her own experiences imitating these garments}
  • Heather Rose Jones, “Another Look at St. Louis’ Shirt” (2004) {good suppliment to Burnham’s diagram of the shirt of St. Louis, but now see the study by Tina Anderlini who was allowed to handle the original}
  • Tasha Dandelion Kelly, The Pourpoint of Charles de Blois: An Adapted Sewing Pattern for Chest Sizes 37-50 (lulu, 2011)
  • Katrin Kania, Kleidung im Mittelalter: Materialien – Konstruktion – Nähtechnik: ein Handbuch (Böhlau Verlag: Wien und Köln, 2010) {very strong on surviving clothing and textiles and offers a reasonable way of drafting single and double garments without modern tools like measuring tapes or paper patterns, but not as interested in texts and art or in quilted and stuffed garments}
  • Claudia Kusch, Patrizia Mignani, Raffaella Pozzi (eds.), Redire 1427-2009. Ritorno alla luce. Il restauro del Farsetto di Pandolfo III Malatesti. I Quaderni del museo, 2. Museo Civico di Fano: Fano, IT, 2009. {the conservation report on a doublet from a 15th century tomb in Italy, I have not seen this but there is an English summary by Andrea Carloni (backed up on the Wayback Machine}
  • L.E.S.J. Laborde, Ducs de Bourgogne: études sur les lettres, les artes et l’industrie pendant le XVe siècle et plus particulèrement dans le Pays-Bas et le duché de Bourgogne, Tome 1 {miscellaneous expenses from the 1380s onwards, note the payment to Chretien de Pisan on page 16}
  • Maurice Leloir, “A Mediaeval Doublet,” Apollo: The International Magazine of the Arts Vol. 23 Nr. 135 (March 1936) pp. 157-160 {the most important publication in English on the pourpoint of Charles du Blois, with measurements and a pattern taken off the garment different from the pattern in Harmand}
  • René de Lespinasse ed., Les métiers et corporations de la ville de Paris: XIVe-XVIIIe siècles. Tissus, étoffes, vêtements, cuirs et peaux, métiers divers (Imprimerie Nationale: Paris, 1886-1897). {Check out tailors pp. 178ff, pourpontiers pp. 205ff, friperers (who refurbished and resold old clothes) pp. 421ff}
  • Jean Liebel, Springalds and Great Crossbows. Royal Armouries Monograph 5 (1998). Juliet Vale tr.
  • Rex Lingwood, “John Waterer and the ‘Cuir Bouilli’ Confusion,” {argues that surviving hardened leather objects from Europe fall into two families produced by two different processes, and that we can’t assume that either existed since time immemorial}
  • Sir James Gow Mann, The Funeral Achievements of Edward the Black Prince. 3rd ed., rev. London: Clowes, 1951. OCLC 931194576 {this booklet describes the great helm, coat armour, sheath, shield, and gauntlets which were displayed with his tomb in Canterbury Cathedral until they were replaced by replicas in 1954}
  • Maria Socorro Mantilla de los Rios y Rojas et al., Vestiduras Pontificales del Arzobispo Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada. Siglo XIII: Su Estudio y Restauracion (Madrid: Instituto Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales, 1995) {on a 13th century shirt}
  • Albert Lecoy de la Marche, “Le Bagage d’un étudiant en 1347,” Mémoires de la Société nationale des antiquaires de France (1889) 5e Série 10e Tome ( = Tome 50) pp. 162-182 {a student from Paris died suddenly on the road on 6 November 1347, and after one look through his saddlebags they decided to inventory his property very carefully [transcription of the original Latin and French]}
  • Ronald W. Lightbrown, Medieval European Jewellery: With a Catalogue of the Collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Victoria and Albert Publications: 1992) {I have not read this but its said to be good}
  • S.M. Margeson, Norwich Households: Medieval and Post-Medieval Finds from Norwich Survey Excavations 1971-78. East Anglian Archaeology 58. Norwich Survey: Norwich, 1993. ISBN: 952069504 {miscellaneous catalogue from a dry site, basic commentary on classes of finds such as aiglets}
  • Maureen Fennell Mazzaoui, The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages, 1100-1600 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1981) ISBN 9780521089609 {essential reading for anyone interested in trecento clothing, especially the raw materials and guild regulations}
  • Meek, Christine (2019) “Regulating and Refashioning Dress: Sumptuary Legislation and Its Enforcement in Fourteenth- and Early fifteenth-Century Lucca,” in Gale R. Owen-Crocker and Marien Clegg Hyer (eds.), Refashioning Medieval and Early Modern Dress: A Tribute to Robin Netherton (Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk) pp. 211-235
  • M. J. de Mendonca, O Loudel do Rei D. Joao I. Lisboa (1973) {Conservation report on same garment described by Teixara 1999. Said to consist of “a few layers of linen with combed wool quilted in between, and it had a green woolen fabric as outer shell.”}
  • Arkadiusz Michalak et al., “A fourteenth century Baselard from Lake Ostrowite in Northern Poland,” Acta Militaria Mediaevalia XIII (2017) pp. 165-180 {on a quillion dagger with a well-made copper-alloy chape and locket}
  • Luca Mola, The Silk Industry in Renaissance Venice (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000) {non vidi set Gregorius Mele condiscipulis comendat, addresses the lower grades of silk cloth as well as the famous patterned weaves, satins, and velvets won by the richest}
  • Michel Mollat (ed.), Comptes généraux de l’Etat bourguignon entre 1416 et 1420 (Paris: Imprimerie nationale/Libraire C. Klincksieck, 1965-1966). {the prèmier partie (1965) page 197 is said to talk about pourpoints stuffed with cotton}
  • Monnas, Lisa (1989) “Silk Cloths Purchased for the Great Wardrobe of the Kings of England, 1325-1462.” Textile History, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 283-307
  • Giovanni Monticolo (ed.), I capitolari delle arti veneziane: sottoposte alla giustizia e poi alla giustizia vecchia dalle origini al MCCCXXX (Roma: Tipografo del Senato, 1896) #documents #regulations {the rules of the zuparii (makers of quilted clothing) of Venice from 1219 onwards, plus the sartores “tailors,” balistarii “crossbow-makers”, dyers, etc.; the scan on Google Books is not usable}
  • Quita Mould, Ian Carlisle, and Esther Cameron (eds.) Leather and Leatherworking in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17 The Small Finds, Fasc. 16 Craft, Industry, and Everyday Life. York Archaeological Trust: Walmgate, York, 2003. {sword sheaths are mostly before this period but show the development and the stitching is well described}
  • Monnas, Lisa (2008) Merchants, princes, and painters : silk fabrics in Italian and Northern paintings, 1300-1500
  • John H. Munro, “The anti-red shift– to the ‘Dark Side’: Colour changes in Flemish luxury woollens, 1300 – 1550.” Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Vol. 3, No. 1 (2007) pp. 55-98 {study of the colours of cloth purchased by Flemish towns based on exhaustive archival research … I wish he made the basis for his statements about the width of cloths and length of different yards and ells clearer, but this reflects 40 years of thought and research and he was very generous to make it available for free before his death in 2013. Notably, he rejects the idea that black cloth was expensive: in the archives he has read, the expensive colours were ‘scarlet’ and ‘in grain’ and the various blacks, browns, violets, blues, greens, and reds all had prices which were statistically indistinguishable from one another. You can get a sense for the kind of person he was on his faculty page}
  • John H. Munro, “The Medieval Scarlet and the Economics of Sartorial Splendour.” This was first published in a Gedenkschrift, namely N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (eds.), Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Honour of Professor E.M. Carus-Wilson (Pasold Studies in Textile History 2) (Heinemann Educational Books: London, 1983) pp. 13-70 and reprinted in his collected articles (Textiles, Towns, and Trade: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot UK, 1994) {the standard article on the highest-quality woolen cloth known as scarlet, and its relationship to cloth dyed in grain (with kermes)}
  • Sir Nicholas Harris Nicholas, “Observations on the Institution of the Most Noble Order of the Garter,” Archaeologia: or, Miscellaneous tracts Relating to Antiquity xxi (1846) pp. 1-163;view=1up;seq=12 {for the past 200 years, professional scholars have been telling each other that someone should really publish and analyze more of these. Until then, this article is what we have for my period.}
  • Stella Mary Newton, Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince: A Study of the Years 1340 to 1365 (several printings, most recently Boydell Press 2012) {the work of a self-educated dress historian at the end of a long career, this book is especially strong on how people reacted to the new fashions of this period, but some of the details can be quibbled with; she summarizes many unpublished sources in English}
  • Netherton, Robin (????) “The View from Herjolfsnes: Greenland’s Translation of the European Fitted Fashion.” Medieval Clothing and Textiles 4
  • Nockert, Margareta (1985) Bockstensmannen och Hans Dräkt (“The Bocksten Man and His Clothing”) (Stiftelsen Hallands länsmuseer, Halmstad och Varberg: Falkenberg, Sweden) {the essential source on this murder victim who would have been in fashion in the early 14th century. Everyone who re-draws these changes something and leaves out some of the numbers}
  • A.V.B Norman, The Rapier and Small-Sword, 1460-1820 (Arms and Armour Press, Lionel Leventhal Limited: London, 1980) {covers sword hilts and scabbards, but not blades}
  • Nutz, Beatrice (n.d.) Transcriptions of various sumptuary laws (Kleiderordnungen) ranging from 13th and 14th century Nürnberg to Maximillian’s law of 1518
  • Beatrice Nutz, “Jagdkleidung Kaiser Maximilian I. / Hunting garments of Emperor Maximilian I” (2019) {edition and translation of a manuscript on hunting by emperor Maximillian from 1508, partilly in his own hand}
  • Ewart Oakeshott, The Sword in the Age of Chivalry (ed. pr. 1964, second edition The Boydell Press: Woodbridge, 1994) {probably the best introduction to the late medieval #sword in English, very clear on his famous typology and its limits}
  • Ewart Oakeshott, Records of the Medieval Sword (The Boydell Press, 1991)
  • Else Østergård, Woven into the Earth: Textile finds in Norse Greenland {to be read with Medieval Garments Reconstructed}
  • Patrick Ottaway and Nicola Rogers, Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Medieval York. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17 The Small Finds, Fasc. 15 (Council for British Archaeology, 2002) {Locks and keys, scissors and shears, knives, firesteels (“strike-a-lights”), ceramics and glassware, little metal mounts for leatherwork …}
  • Gale R. Owen-Crocker, Elizabeth Jane Coatsworth, Maria Hayward eds., Encyclopedia of dress and textiles in the British Isles c. 450-1450 (Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2012) {Useful entries on Aketon, Doublet, Gambeson, Jack, Pourpoint, etc. with some unpublished or very obscure lists of materials, and on weights, measures, and types of fabric}
  • Elisabeth Pfeiffer, Ellen und ihre Vergleichungen (St. Katharninen Scripta: 1990) OCLC 243447238 {cp. Zupko, I have never been at a library which had this}
  • Ernest Petit, Les itinéraires de Philippe le Hardi et de Jean sans Peur, ducs de Bourgogne (1363-1419) (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1888)
  • Rosita Levi Pisetzky, Storia del Costume in Italia, 5 volumi (Istituto Editoriale Italiano {Treccani}, 1974/1975) {the standard reference on written, carved, and painted source, if you are serious about this subject and can read Italian you need to borrow this. It has probably 80% of the artwork which floats around the Internet today (and some art which most people interested in medieval clothing do not know) and a mass of quotes from contemporary documents and literature, and it treats specific places and times in depth rather than dancing over 500 years in 250 pages. It was reprinted in 2005 by the Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome. For a table of contents see Volume 2 covers the 1300s and the 1400s}
  • B. Prost, Inventaires, mobiliers et extraits des comptes des ducs de Bourgogne de la maisson de Valois, 1363-1477, 2 vols (Paris, 1902 and 1913)
  • Susan D. Reed, “15th-Century Men’s Doublets: An Overview” (1994, 2004) {very important bibliography for the 14th century, the list of artwork is a good starting point}
  • Luciano Salvatici (ed.), Posate, Pugnali, Coltelli da Caccia del Museo Nazionale del Bargello. Museo Nazionale del Bargello: Florence, 1999. ISBN 88 7242 285X. {half a dozen relevant knives and daggers with one B&W photo and a paragraph of text apiece}
  • Barbara Santich, The Original Mediterranean Cuisine: Medieval Recipes for Today Second Edition (Equinox Publishing, 2018) {unlike the English recipes in The Forme of Cury and Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, this draws on manuscripts from Catalonia and Italy; non vidi sed Stephanus Muhlberger ad lectores commendat #cooking #kitchen}
  • Ferdinando Sartini (ed.) Statuti dell’arte dei rigattieri e linaioli di Firenze (1296-1340). Regia Deputazione di Storia Partia per la Toscana, Fonti e studi sule corporazione artigiane del medio evo, II (Florence: Felice le Monnier, ed., 1940) #documents #regulations {the riggatieri repaired and resold used goods and made new quilted clothing (they combined the roles of fripperers and junk-dealers in England and France); their rule is not as useful as the French rules, but is in easy notarial Latin, and the publication date may explain why the index only covers the first 1/3 of the alphabet}
  • Christiane Schnack. Mittelalterliche Lederfunde aus Schleswig – Futterale, Riemen, Taschen und andere Objekte. Ausgrabung Schild 1971-1975. Ausgrabungen in Schleswig – Berichte und Studien, Band 13. Wachholz Verlag: Neumünster, 1998. ISBN-13 3-529-01463-X. {prices as of summer 2017 are extortionate on Bookfinder, but AntikMakler in Germany has copies for EUR 39,00}
  • Schulze-Dörlamm, Mechthild (1995) Das Reichsschwert: Ein Herrschaftszeichen des Saliers Heinrich IV. und des Welfen Otto IV. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen. {Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani recommends on the ‘Sword of St. Maurice’ and its gold-plated olivewood scabbard in Vienna}
  • Denis-François Secousse (ed.) Ordonnances des rois de France de la troisième race (Paris) septième volume (1383-1394), huitième volume (1395-1403), and neuvième volume (1404-1411) {the ancien regime had its weaknesses, but they did manage to print all the laws of the House of Valois before that trouble at the forks of the Ohio. These volumes can be searched for words such as tailleur, cousturier, and pourpointier. The second volume has an edict of maximum prices for clothing and the third volume ((King Jean, 1355 to 8 April 1364)) has a “Lettres qui petmittent aux Cousturiers, [Tailleurs] de faire & de vendre des Doublez (Paris, September 1358)” (letter which allows the cousturiers or tailors to make and sell doublets}
  • Jeffrey L. Singman and Will McLean, Daily Life in Chaucer’s England. Daily Life through History Series. London and Westport, Connetticut: Greenwood Press, 1995.
  • Staniland, Kay (1991) Medieval Craftsmen: Embroiderers. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, ON and Buffalo, NY. Excellent affordable illustrated introduction focused on England, the only problem is that its not cited and has a very basic bibliography. #embroidery
  • Susan Moshe Stuard, Gilding the Market: Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth-Century Italy (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006) ISBN 9780812239003 {chatty book on material culture by someone who mainly works with written sources}
  • Stratford, Jenny (ed.) (1993) The Bedford Inventories: The Worldly Goods of John, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France (1389-1435). Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London, no. 49 (Society of Antiquaries of London: London) #document #inventory
  • Isis Sturtewagen, All together respectably dressed: fashion and clothing in Bruges during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Doctoral dissertation, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Arts, Department of History, 2016 {this book focuses on inventories from the mid-15th-century onwards, but I encourage my gentle readers to buy the printed version as soon as it appears}
  • Maria Emília Amaral Teixeira, tr. Isabel Motta, O loudel de D. João I/The Loudel of D. João I 3rd edition (Museu de Alberto Sampaio, 1999) ISBN 972-776-012-0 {a sleeveless quilted garment said to have been dedicated after the battle of Aljubarrota between Castilian and Anglo-Portugese forces in 1385}
  • Augustin Thierry (ed.), Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du tiers état: prèmière série, chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des corporations d’arts et metiers des villes et communes de France, région du Nord. Tome deuxième (Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1853) {rule of the pourpointiers of Amiens from Febuary 1428/1429}
  • Augustin Thierry (ed.), Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du tiers état: prèmière série, chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des corporations d’arts et metiers des villes et communes de France, région du Nord. Tome quatrième (Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1870) {Table of contents lists rules for glovers (1478), pourpointiers (c. 1480), armourers (who also made scabbards), and drapers-chaussers (1497). They also have a sumptuary law from 1467 but its not very detailed.}
  • Sarah Thursfield, The Medieval Tailor’s Assistant: Common Garments 1100-1480. 2nd Edition, Revised and Expanded (Crowood Press, 2015) available from publisher {I have mixed feelings about this book, it teaches practical sewing skills and good philosophy like ‘don’t obsess about finding exactly the right material’ but her doublets are not shaped like originals}
  • Marco Vignola, Riflessioni sulla basilarda. Analisi tipologiche e spunti ricostruttivi (Bookstones: Rimini, 2016) {booklet on basilards with a typology, photos of surviving examples, and details for bladesmiths}
  • Marco Vignola, Armature e armorari nella Milano medievale: Storia di famiglie, signa, magli e acciaio (Edizioni dell’Orso: Alessandria, IT, 2017) ISBN 978-88-6274-762-2
  • Robin Vogelzang tr., Joan Santanach ed., The Book of Sent Soví: Medieval recipes from Catalonia (Barcino-Tamesis, 2008) ISBN-13 9781855661646 #cooking
  • Marquita Volken, Archaeological Footwear: Development of Shoe Patterns and Styles from Prehistory til the 1600’s (SPA Uitgevers, 2014) ISBN-13 978-9089321176
  • Marquita Volken, “Arming Shoes of the Fifteenth Century,” Acta Periodica Duellatorum 5.2 (December 2017) pp. 25-45 {by a very respected expert in shoes, but her friends in armour seem unhappier about medieval shoes than my friends in armour}
  • Watson, David R. (2009) Iolo’s First Book of Crossbows. 2nd Edition (Gwasg Caeseg Wen Press: Austin, TX)
  • Annemariek Willemsen. Medieval Chic in Metal: Decorative Mounts on Belts and Purses From the Low Countries, 1300-1600. Stichting Promotie Archeologie, 2012.
  • Annemarieke Willemsen, “‘Man is a sack of muck girded with silver’: Metal Decoration on Late-medieval Leather Belts and Purses from the Netherlands, Medieval Archaeology 56 (2012) pp. 171-202 DOI: 10.1179/0076609712Z.0000000006 {summary of her book on small finds}
  • Annemarieke Willemsen, Honderden… Van hand tot hand: handschoenen en wanten in de Nederlanden voor 1700. Spa uitgevers B.V.: Leiden, 2015. ISBN-13 9789089321275.
  • C.M. Woolgar, Household Accounts from Medieval England. Records of social and economic history, New Series, 17 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992 and 1993) {one book published in two parts: the first explains his methods and talks about the physical documents, the second has most of the clothing and accessories}
  • Ronald Edward Zupko, French weights and measures before the Revolution: a dictionary of provincial and local units (Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1978)
  • Ronald Edward Zupko, A Dictionary of Weights and Measures for the British Isles: the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. (American Philosophical Society: Philadelphia, 1985)
  • {I have never been at a library which owned this. See the article by Abraham-Thisse on ells and the book by Pfiffer on ells}

  • Ronald Edward Zupko, Italian Weights and Measures from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society 145 (American Philosophical Society: Philadelphia, 1981)

Things to Add

Add Frangioni’s books and articles, then there should be the web resources …

  • Anna Attiliani, “Tacuinum Medievale” {Italien}
  • Civitas Alidosiana
  • James and Kimberley Barker, Historic Life (offline since December 2015, check out their advice on tailoring and essays on 11th century English and 16th century clothing and on jacks}</li
  • Jens Börner “Diu Minnezît”
  • Charlotte Johnson, By My Measure {see her posts Split and Joined Hose in the 14th Century (butt-covering split hose for the win!) and Sleeve Fitting: Farm Boy… Fetch Me That Pitcher, or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Reach My Own Damned Pottery} (offline since late 2016) and Drafting (a Fitted Dress) by Measurement
  • Consielo, Indumentaria y costumbres en la España: Medieval hasta el siglo XVII
  • Dame Helen
  • Eleanor Deyeson’s Workshop
  • Deventer Burgerscap
  • Chris Dobson “The Art and History of Italy”
  • Exploring The Medieval Hunt
  • Histo|Faber
  • Honor Before Victory: The Adventures of Gregor and Genoveva
  • in deme Jare Cristi
  • I. Marc Carlson, Some Clothing of the Middle Ages and Footwear of the Middle Ages and now Website of a Historical Polymath
  • ig 14 {Wien}
  • Isis Sturtewagen, Medieval Silkwork
  • Jessamyn’s Closet {miscellaneous comments in 14th/15th century Iberian clothing, needs footnoting!}
  • Katafalk
  • H. Kongsrud, Høvel & hage … om prosjektmakerier
  • Tasha Dandelion Kelly, “La Cotte Simple”
  • La Bella Donna
  • “La Belle Compagnie: Medieval Living History 1337-1453”
  • MIM InteressenGemenischaft Mensch im Mittelalter {Wien}
  • Thomas Neijman, “History, Craft, Warfare”
  • Robin Netherton {Robin Netherton was cursed in that she can’t write down how she drafts historical clothing, she fits it on the body. The two PDFs on this site are as much as she has ever written and shared; she also edited the Medieval Costume and Textiles journal}
  • Neues aus der Gothik {Wien}
  • Opus Anglicanum
  • Wienische Handwërcliute
  • Kathleen Fasanella, Fashion-Incubator: Lessons from the Sustainable Factory Floor author of The Enterpreneur’s Guide to Sewn Product Manufacturing
  • Cathy Raymond, Loose Threads {great announcements of new books}
  • Edyth Miller, The Completely Dressed Anachronist Creating an Authentic Cotte, Part 3 has a thoughtful comment that coats widened with godots straight-to-bias between the legs drape differently than the coats in fashionable late 14th and 15th century art
  • Leimomi Oakes, The Dreamstress

Roland Warzecha Dimicator {honourable mention: he is in to swords, shields, and the Viking Age}
A Damsel in this Dress
Chaucer’s Compagnie
Medieval York: Eulalia Hath a Blogge
The Turnip of Terror
Project Broad Axe

S.M. Giuseppi, “The Wardrobe and Household Accounts of Bogo de Clare, A.D. 1284-6,” Archaeologia Vol. LXX (1920) pp. pp. 1-56 The account book of a rich clerk. This is in the public domain, but this scan is behind a paywall

S. Armitage-Smith (ed.) John of Gaunt’s Register (1372-76), Camden Soc. 3rd ser. 20 & 21 (London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 1911) Part 1 (1371-1375) and Part 2 volume 2 p. 193 has a purchase of two yards of double camocas to make a paltock for a squire

Statuts des marchands drapiers et chaussetiers d’Abbeville, 14 août 1497. (Thierry, Augustin, “Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du Tiers Etat…”)

“L. Statut des Parmentiers, Pourpointiers et Tailleurs” (1480) In Augustin Thiérry, Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du Tiers-Etat. Première série, Chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des villes et communes de France. Région du Nord. 2. IV. Contenant les pièces relatives à l’histoire municipale d’Abbeville et à celle des villes, bourgs et villages de la Basse-Picardie… (Paris: Félix Bourquelot et Charles Louandre, 1850-1870) pp. 311-314 Reminds me of the one from Amiens, they allow wool as a stuffing. There is a rule for armourers and scabbard-makers on pp. 317-318 but its not very interesting.

Ordonnances de Rois du France XV pp. 474-478 has the rule of the pourpointierstailors of Bordeaux from 1462. Its not very interesting at first glance and the French is hard to understand.

Statuts des tailleurs de Poitiers, mars 1461. (“Ordonnance des rois de France…”) XV pp. 402ff. They made doublets and pourpoints too; item 7 is the only interesting one, a “no one shall put wool or tow (layne ou estouppes) in a doublet or pourpoint which he make for sale” clause. The text says June 1468.

“4. Ordnung des Raths über die Meisterprüfung der Schneider. 1454, Mai 25. Altestes Rathbuch, Bl. 26.” In Max Bär (ed.), Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der Verfassung und Verwaltung der Stadt Koblenz bis zum Jahre 1500 (Bonn: Hermann Behrend, 1898) pp. 236-238 ; the quote is page 237 line 8 (they also have an ordinances for hatters etc.) “(als meisterstück soll er schneidern) eynen gemeynen mans tabert und eyns mans wambusch mit gelenken oder ufglaichten armen, wie man das nent.”

Statuts des chaussetiers de Touraine, février 1447/8 (“Ordonnances des rois de France…”: vol. 13, index and pp. 536-539)

Grimm s.v. Wams n. etc. (note that the Gebrüder Grimm mix a thousand years of language history into one entry, so take time to make sure you understand where each passage comes from)

Adolf Diestelkamp, Die Entwicklung des Schneidergewerbes in Deutschland bis zum Ausgang des 16. Jahrhunderts, G. Eilert: Unna in Westfalen, 1922. OCLC 928145795

Ernst Müllerleile, Die Gewandschneidergilde in Hildesheim, 1913. OCLC 71961264. “Aus Zeitschrift d. hist. Ver. f. Niedersachsen. Jg. 78.”

Sabine Struckmeier, Die Textilfärberei vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Frühen Neuzeit: Eine naturwissenschaftlichßtechnische Analyse deutschsprachiger Quellen. Cottbuser Studien zur Geschichte von Technik, Arbeit und Umwelt 35. Waxmann: Münster, 1935. {check out pages 39 and following for a list of 14th and 15th century manuscripts with several hundred dyers’ recipes, many of them unpublished but some in Ploss’ Buch von alten Farben or Oltrogge, Datenbank mittelalterlicher und frühneuzeitlicher Rezepte in handschriftlichre Überlieferung =}

Poems of Peter Suchwirt (d. 1395)

Wey, Willian (1458) “A Provision.” In In George Willias and Bulkeley Bandinel (eds.), The Itineraries of William Wey, fellow of Eton college. To Jerusalem, A.D. 1458 and A.D. 1462; and to Saint James of Compostella, A.D. 1456. From the original manuscript in the Bodleian library (Roxburghe Club: London, 1857) pp. 4-7 Condensed, Modern English version at

Zimmermann, P. Die junge Haushälterinn, ein Buch für Mütter und Töchter. Basel, 1792 /Luzern: Anich, 1807 {I have not seen this but the webmistress of recommends it}

Material from Niklas’ bibliography Quellen des 14.Jahrhunderts – Literatur für die persönliche Ausstattung (2015): Christiane Schnack, „Mittelalterliche Lederfunde aus Konstanz“; Heinz Knorr, „Messer und Dolch – Eine Untersuchung zur mittelalterlichen Waffenkunde in gesellschaftlicher Sicht“ in Veröffentlichungen des Museums Potsdam 6 (1971) pp. 121-145; Hilke Saggau, „Mittelalterliche Eisenfunde aus Schleswig“; Ronald W. Lightbown „Medieval European Jewelry“; Harry Kühnel, “Alltag im Spätmittelalter”; Jan Keupp, “Die Wahl des Gewandes: Mode, Macht und Möglichkeitssinn in Gesellschaft und Politik des Mittelalters,” Ostfildern: Jan Thorbecke Verlag 2010; Ilse Fingerlin, „Gürtel des hohen und späten Mittelalters“

Material on documents in Holtmann:

  • Konrad Ullmann, “Dolchmesser, Dolche und Kurzwehren des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts im Kernraum der Hanse,” Waffen- und Kostümkunde 1-2 (1961)
  • Konrad Ullmann, Das Werk der Waffenschmiede, Schriften zur Kulturgeschichte des Rheinisch-Westfälischen Industriegebietes, Heft 11, Essen (1962)
  • F. Fuhse, Schmiede und verwandte Gewerbe in der Stadt Braunschweig, Leipzig 1930
  • F. Fuhse, Handwerksaltertümer, Braunschweig 1935

Jens Sensfelder, Crossbows in the Royal Netherlands Army Museum (2008)

Dirk H. Breiding, “A Deadly Art: European Crossbows, 1250–1850” (2014)

Charles Alexander, Baron de Cosson, “The Crossbow of Ulrich V. Count of Wurtemburg (sic), 1460, with remarks on its construction,” Archaeologia, Vol. 52 No. 2 (1893) pp. 445-464, pl. 34 {the first article to dissect a European composite crossbow, and to publish two list of materials for making some in 1358 and 1361; the titular crossbow is now Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, accession number 04.3.36}

De Groote, Koen, et al. (2018) “Daer Nu de Boochmakere up Woendt: Geschiedenis En Archeologie van Christoffels Jans, Kruisboogmaker Aan de Veemarkt Te Aalst (1489-1498).” In Koen de Groote and Jan Moens (eds.), Archeologie en geschiedenis van een middeleeuwse woonwijk onder de Hopmarkt te Aalst. Relicta Monografieën 16. (Brussels: Onroerend Erfgoed, 2018) pp. 373-424 {descriptions of scraps found in the house of a late 15th cenutury crossbow-maker}

Roland Thomas Richardson, The Medieval Inventories of the Tower of London, 1320-1410 (PhD thesis, University of York, 2012)

Thom Richardson, The Tower Armoury in the Fourteenth Century (The Royal Armouries, 2018)

Gaston Phoebus, Livre de chasse (1387-1389): {This was translated into English by Henry II Duke of York between 1406 and 1413 and modernized in 1904 as Master of the Game [with a forward by Theodore Roosevelt!] but that version may be missing some technical details about crossbows, I need to look at both versions}

R. Beuing und W. Augustyn (eds.) Schilde des Spätmittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit (Passau: Klinger Verlag, 2019) ISBN 978-3-86328-172-4 for sale from Reszension:

Kirsten O. Frieling, Sehen und gesehen werden. Kleidung an Fürstenhöfen an der Schwelle vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit (ca. 1450–1530). (Mittelalter-Forschungen, Bd. 41.) Ostfildern, Thorbecke 2013

Jan Kohlmorgen, Der mittelalterliche Reiterschild: Historische Entwicklung von 975 bis 1350 und Anleitung zum Bau eines kampftauglichen Schildes (Wald-Michelbach: Karfunkel-Verlag, 2002)

Lüken, Sven / Sensfelder, Jens / Jäger, Felix / Reineke, Brigitte (eds.) (2019) Die Armbrust: Schrecken und Schönheit (Hirmer Verlag: München / Deutsches Historisches Museum: Berlin)

Rasmo, Nicolo (1980) Die Mode als Wegweiser für die Datierung von Kunstwerken des 14. Jh. in Südtirol

Sophie Jolivet, “Bibliographie sur le vêtement au Moyen Age.”

Madou Mireille, Das Mittelalterliche Kostüm in den Niederlanden (Terminologie und Typologie mittelalterlicher Sachgüter: das Beispiel der Kleidung). Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für mittelalterliche Realienkunde Österreichs 10: Sitzungsberichte der österreiche Akademie der wissenschaften phil. hist., kl. 511, Wien, 1988, p. 77-92.

Ploss., E. Ein Buch von alter Farben – Technologie der Textilfarben im Mittelalter, München, 1967 (6e édition, München, 1989).

HOCQUET Jean-Claude., La métrologie historique, Paris, P.U.F. 1995

DOURSTHER Horace, Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, réedition, Méridian, Amsterdam, 1965.

Emil Levy, Provinzalisches Supplement-Wörterbuch: Berichtungen und Ergänzungen zu Raynouards Lexique Roman. Many volumes (O.R. Reisland: Leipzig, 1894 and later)
A to C
D to Eng
Eng to F
G to L
P to Q
R to S

M. Raynouard, Lexique Roman ou Dictionnaire de la Langue des Troubadours, comparée avec les autres Langues de l’Europe Latine. Many volumes (Silvestre Libraire: Paris)
A to C
D to K
L to P
Q to Z

Max von Boehn, Die Mode: Menschen und Moden im Mittelalter: Vom Untergang der Alten Welt bis zur Renaissance (München 1925)

Miriam, “Herjolfsnes Errors Repository”

Marquita Volken and Olaf Goubitz, Covering the Blade: Archaeological Leather Sheaths and Scabbards (Spa-Uitgevers, 2020) ISBN-13 9789089320513 {on finds from Dordrecht, the sequel to Purses in Pieces}

Magninus Mediolanensis Opusculum de Saporibus (a book of sauces for #cooking from about 1330-1340: Lynn Thorndike, “A Mediaeval Sauce-Book,” Speculum Vol. 9, No. 2 (April 1934), pp. 183-190, Terence Scully, “The ‘Opusculum de Saporibus’ of Magninus Mediolanensis,” Medium Ævum Vol. 54, No. 2 (1985), pp. 178-207. Thanks Sophia of Neues aus der Gothik!)

“Prenegard, prenegard, Thus bere I myn baselard”

Clothes of the Common People In Elizabethan and Early Stuart England: A User’s Manual (Stuart Press: Blackwell, England) (non vidi)

Brun-Durand, M. (1896) “Inventaire des Biens Mobiliers et Immobiliers d’un Jurisconsulte de Vanence, 1348.” In Recueil d’anciens inventaires : imprimés sous les auspices du comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. Section d’archéologie. Tome I pp. 383 ff.

Ersler, Kristian Sofus August (ed.), Testamenter fra Danmarks Middelalder indtil 1450 (Copenhagen: Kongelige Danske Selskab for Fædrelandets historie og Sprog, 1901) {mostly in Latin}

Medieval Literature

  • James Tait (ed.), Chronica Johannis de Reading et Anonymi cantuariensis, 1346-1367. Publications of the University of Manchester, Historical Series, Vol. 20 (Sherratt and Hughes: Manchester and London, 1914) {This monk of Westminister Abbey, who died in 1368/9, comments on the new fashions of the 1360s on pp. 167-168 with commentary on pp. 328-330}
  • Haydon, Frank Scott (ed.), Eulogium (historiarum sive temporis): Chronicon ab orbe condito usque ad annum Domini M.CCC.LXCI., a monacho quodam Malmesburiensi exaratum; accedunt continuiationes duae, quarum una ad annum M.CCCC XIII., altera ad annum M.CCCC.XC. perducta est. Volume 3 (Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green: London, 1863) {this chronicle by a monk of Malmesbury comments on the new fashions of the 1360s on vol. 3 pp. 230-231}

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Especially Useful Art

Other manuscripts with 14th century (ish) goodness:

  • Bodley 264 Romance of Alexander (Flemish, 1338-1344)
  • Bibliotheque Nationale du France, Français 167 Bible Moralisée of Jean le Bon
  • Bibliothèque nationale de France. Département des Manuscrits. Français 167 Bible Moralisée (Paris)
  • Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Français 1586 (Paris) Guillaume de Machaut, Poésies
  • Très belles Heures de Notre-Dame (Paris, 1389-1410)
  • St. Barbara Altarpiece by Meister Francke, Finnish National Museum, Helsinki (place of composition unknown, 1410-1424)
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art, accession number NY 1975.1.848 School of Rogier van der Weiden, Men Shovelling Chairs (Brussels, 1444-1450)


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